Hitler Youth - Hitler Jugend
U.S. Intelligence Files and Hitler Youth Photos
339 pages of military and U.S. intelligence files, and 39 photographs dealing with the Hitler Youth (Hitler Jugend).
The Hitler-Jugend or Hitler Youth was founded in 1922. On March 8th, 1922, Hitler, in his own newspaper, the "Volkische Beobachter", announced the establishment of the Jugendbund der NSDAP (Youth League of the Nazi Party), later known as the Jungsturm Adolf Hitler (Youth Shock Troop Adolf Hitler). The Hitler Youth was disbanded in 1923 after the failed Beer Hall Putsch coup and was later re-established. In May 1925 the Wandersportverein Vogtland (Hiking Club Vogtland), in Plauen, Vogtland, merged with the Munchen Jugend-Bund, in Munich Bavaria, under the new name of Hitler-Jugend, a term coined by the notorious anti-semite Julius Streichek, the Nazi chieftain of Franconia.
This new Nazi organization, culminating into the HJ was under the leadership of Kurt Griper, of the Plauen group. In 1925 it became a junior branch of the SA (Storm-troopers) and directly subordinate to the SA High Command. Hitler Youth members wore paramilitary uniforms patterned after those of the Nazi Party, with similar insignia to the Sturmabteilung. By 1930 the HJ had 900 Ortsgruppen (local groups) and the DJ (Deutsches Jungvolk-German Young Folk) for boys aged 10-14 and the (BDM Bund Deutscher Madel-League of German Girls) were founded as branches of the HJ. By 1931 the total membership had expanded to 15,000.
Under the leadership of Baldur von Schirach, who served as the first Reichsjugendführer (Reich Youth Leader), by 1932 its numbers had risen to 250,000. When Hitler took over full governmental power in 1933, more boys and girls joined, and all other youth organizations were rapidly prohibited and disbanded, their ranks subsequently urged to join the HJ. After the first year of the Nazi regime, the HJ, including its branches, DJ, JM, and BDM, numbered two million. One year later this figure doubled, and by the 1st. of October, 1934, when the HJ was declared Staatsjuged (Government sponsored Youth Organization), the total amounted to six million, of which one and a half-million belonged to the HJ proper, the others to its branches.
The Decree of December 1, 1936, providing for Reichsjugenddienstpflicht (Compulsory Youth Service), completely destroyed all remaining youth organizations. The decree contained three major points: 1. All German youth shall join the HJ. 2. The mission of the HJ is to train all German Youth, physically, mentally and morally for national service in the spirit of National Socialism. School and home are subordinated to the interests of the State. 3. The Reichsjugendführer (Reich Youth Leader) is entrusted with all phases of the education of German youth and is responsible only the Fuhrer.
In 1940 Schirach was replaced by Arthur Axmann as Reichsjugendführer. As the leader of the Hitler Youth, Axman moved the group's emphasis to that of an auxiliary force which could perform war duties. By 1943, the Hitler Youth was turned into a military reserve to replace manpower lost in the war. By 1945, boys as young as ten years old were drafted into the Hitler Youth. During the Battle of Berlin, Hitler Youth members formed a major part of the last line of German defense.
The titles include:
SHAEF HANDBOOK HITLER JUGEND (HITLER YOUTH)
A 233-page, 1944 document produced by the Supreme Headquarter Allied Expeditionary Force Evaluation and Dissemination Section G-2 (Counter Intelligence Sub-Division), titled, "The Hitler Jugend (The Hitler Youth Organization)," or "Basic Handbook The Hitler Youth (Die Hitlerjugend)." This reports begins with brief summaries covering of a wide range of aspects of the Hitler Youth. Subjects and topics include:
HISTORICAL BACKGROUND AND DEVELOPMENT: Die Jugendbewegung (The German Youth Movement). Beginnings of the Hitler-Jugend. Expansion of Hitler-Jugend into A State Organization. Reichsjugenddienstpflicht (Compulsory Youth Service).
ORGANIZATION: Main branches of the Hitler-Jugend. Die Reichsjugendfurng (Reich Youth Directorate). Hitler-Jugend Gebiete (Hitler-Jugend Regions). The Hitler-Jugend Standort (Garrison). Hitler-Jugend Banne (Regiments).
CONSCRIPTION AND TRAINING: Conscription Procedure. Basic Training. Weltanschauung (ideological training). Vocational Training. Schools. Gebietsfuhrerschulen (Regional Schools for Officers). Reichsschulen (National Schools). National Political Educational Institutions. The Reichsjugendakademie (National Youth Academy). Adolf-Hitler Schulen (Adolf Hitler Schools).
WAR SERVICE AND MILITARY TRAINING: War Service. Liaison with the Armed Forces. Pre- Military Training Camps. Sondereineiten (Specialist Units). Zachrichten HJ (Signals). Motor Hitler-Jugend (Motorized Hitler Youth). Marine Hitler-Jugend. Flieger Hitler-Jugend (Aviation Hitler Youth). Musikzuge (Band Platoons).
HITLER-JUGEND LEADERS, RANKS AND UNIFORMS
HITLER-JUGEND ABROAD: Hitler-Jugend in Occupied Territories. Hitler-Jugend in Foreign Territories.
OPPOSITION YOUTH MOVEMENTS: Legal Measures regarding German Youth. Unofficial youth organizations outside the Hitler Jugend. Repressive Measures.
The report contains 190 pages of detailed order of battle tables covering
PART ONE: LIST OF HJ GEBIETE: Part One lists the HJ Gebiete and Befehlsstellen in numerical order, giving the NSDAP Gau with which each Gebiet is practically identical.
PART TWO: THE HJ GEBIETE: Part Two gives details of each Gebiet, in numerical order, the first page giving HQ, personalities and schools, and following pages giving the identified Banne of the Gebiet. "GEBIETSFUHRUNG" (Regional Directorate): Gives HQ location, and identified staff personalities, using German terms and abbreviations. "IDENTIFIED BANNE": In addition to Banne (and any of their identified subunits), towns in which NSDAP Kreise have their HQ, are listed for reference, as it is a general principle that HJ Banns were located in such towns.
PART THREE HJ BANNE, LISTED NUMERICALLY: Part Three provides a numerical index of the Banne with Gebiet to which each belongs.
PART FOUR HJ BANNE LISTED BY LOCATION: Part Four gives the same information as Part Three, except that Banne identified by location. Banne Identified by location only will also be found here.
PART FIVE: HJ SCHOOLS AND CAMPS: Schools are here listed according to type, and subdivided in most cases according to the Gebiet in which they are located.
PART SIX: HJ AUSKANDSFUHRER: Part Six lists HJ representatives abroad, according to countries; rank and. functions are given.
Included are diagrams and charts of the HJ structure, abbreviations of German terms used in HJ documents, and an outline of HJ proficiency tests, lists of names and ranks of HJ personnel.
OFFICE OF STRATEGIC SERVICES FILES
Twelve pages of OSS memos outlining proposed psychological operations against the Hitler Youth organization. The Backdoor Program, the purpose of this program was to increase the strength and effectiveness of opposition groups existing within Germany among young Germans. The Primrose Program, the purpose of this program was to undermine the morale of the German younger generation, particularly with regard to willingness to participate actively in Nazi Youth activities. A secondary purpose was the encouragement of relatively unorganized gangs of rebellious youngsters in their attacks on the Hitler Youth (Hitler Jugend) and the League of German Girls (BDM). The Fiddle Program, the purpose of this program was to arouse and accentuate opposition to the Hitler Youth (HJ) and the League of German Girls (BDM).
The potential opposition was to be found among the parental generation, particularly that portion which was relatively conservative in its religious and social view.
A seven page OSS Intelligence study titled, Japanese Attempts at Indoctrination of Youth in Occupied Areas.
THE U.S. ARMED FORCES GERMAN YOUTH ACTIVITIES PROGRAM 1945 - 1955
An 81-page, 1956 report by the Headquarters, United States Army, Europe (USAREUR). This report gives the history of interaction between the United States armed forces and the German youth, both organized and unorganized, during the 10-year occupation period following the end of World War II. The study analyzes the operation of the program in its peak years and concludes with a discussion of the phase-out and termination of the program. Among the topics discussed are the establishment of youth centers, the activities sponsored by the program, personnel and support problems, and relationships with the German communities.
Subjects and topics include:
IMMEDIATE: POSTWAR PERIOD: The Youth Problem Anticipated. Early Official Policies. The First Program. The Theater-wide Program. The Kreis Youth Committees.
THE ORGANIZATIONAL PHASE, 1946-47: The Beginning of Army Assistance. The USFET Program. German-Sponsored Groups. Youth Amnesty. Defining the Army's Role. The Creation of Army Youth Centers. Adjusting Practice to Policy. The Civic Centers. The Personnel Problem. Logistical Support. Christmas Parties. Welfare. Preventive Medicine. Appraisal of GYA. Communist Reactions.
OPERATION, 1948-51: Financing the Program. The General Clay Fund. General Activities. The Chief GYA Projects. Personnel Difficulties. Reduction of U.S. Constabulary Aid. Youth Leadership Training. Democratic Reorientation Survey.
THE PHASEOUT, 1951-55: Plans for Transfer of GYA Responsibilities. Initial Transfer Attempts. Consequence of Reduction of Funds. Transfer of Centers. The Joint USAREUR-HICOG Working Committee.
MILITARY REVIEW - FIGHTING CHILD SOLDIERS
A six-page, June 2003 Department of Defense Military Review article titled, "Fighting Child Soldiers." The article addresses the psychological effects of U.S. soldiers having to engage child soldiers in battle. A comparison is made in this article between the Hitler Youth and Iraq's Saddam Lions Club.
HITLER YOUTH PHOTOGRAPHS
Thirty-nine photos of Hitler Youth marches and gatherings.
The disc contains a text transcript of all recognizable text embedded into the graphic image of each page of each document, creating a searchable finding aid. Text searches can be done across all files on the disc.